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The island's most characteristic monument is the castle of Chora! The castle or Fortezza was built in the 13th century when Kythera was dominated by the Venetians. The Eye of Crete as it was also called due to its strategic position, providing the observance of ships on three seas simultaneously - the Ionian, Aegean and Cretan...

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In Kato Chora of Milopotamos, which is of greater historical importance than the rest of the village, the first building you see as you reach the central square is the old abandoned school. Just beside it is the gate to the castle of Kato Chora, decorated with symbols of the -powerful at the time- Venetian Empire.

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One of the most important archaeological sites is the ruined fortress of Paleochora, the islands Byzantine capital. It was built by Monemvasians in the12th century and was named the city of Agios Dimitrios. It is located on the north side of the island, in the middle of a natural fortress in a deep wild canyon covered by huge rocks.

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In the picturesque fishing village of Avlemonas, on the east coast, you’ll find the third in chronological order Venetian fortress built on the island. Agia Pelagia, Kapsali and Avlemonas were the three major ports of the time. From this point one could control the Aegean Sea while the other two forts controlled the Cretan and Ionian Seas, respectively.

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